Olive and Oil Varieties
There are more than 70 varieties of olive trees in the world. In our country we counted about 38 olive varieties. Their name is based on their morphological characteristics (leaves, fruit, etc. core). Thus the varieties are divided into three major categories, which are;
- Small fruited (weight from 1.2 to 2.6 g)
- The mesocarp (weight 2.7-4.2 g)
- The adrokarpes (weight of 4 , 6 -10.5 g)
The Small fruited olives are those intended for the production of oil. In this category are classified as wild olive, the koroneiki the koutourelia the Lianolia Corfu, the mastoid.
The meseokarpes olives are those that are edible. The vananolia the Adramytte the Throumbolia the megareitiki in this category agouromanakolia ranked.
The adrokaprpes olives are used only for food. In this category is that the Konservolia the vasilikada the karydolia, the reeds, the amygdalolia and gaidourelia.
The oils according to their origin, are divided into two categories;
- Vegetable oils
- Animal oils
In vegetable oils belong vegetable oils (olive oil, olive pomace oil) and vegetable oils (corn, cottonseed, sunflower, etc.)
In animal oils are fish oils, kitelaia, the liver oils and their various derivatives.
Virgin olive oil
Virgin olive oil called olive oil which only sourced exclusively from the fruit of the olive tree. To receipt of this oil used mechanical or physical means by which there is altered in its final quality.
The varieties of virgin olive oil are;
- virgin olive oil, excellent or high quality, Extra
This category contains the most exquisite oils. They have low acidity which reaches up to 1%. They are obtained by mechanically pressing. The olives of which receives the oil passages are Picked defects or injuries, and are distinguished by excellent organoleptic properties which are, with characteristic fruity flavor. Advantages derived from mechanical pressing of the fruit, without treatment, only washing with water and sedimentation or centrifugation. Finally, the color is kitpino or greenish.
- Fine virgin olive oil, Fine
Features are the same as those of ‘exceptional’ and acidity are the most 1.5%. But during processing or storage lose some organoleptic properties (fruity taste, flavor). For this reason, they said fine and a step ranked below those of the 1 st grade.
- Virgin olive Courante or imieklekto
The oils they have the same similarity to the above, but because of the inappropriate conditions have acidity of 3%. Moreover in the course of their treatment caused some errors (e.g., increased temperature etc.). Therefore usually the oils of this type are suitable for mixing with treated pomace oils to correct their deficiencies.
- The disadvantaged or Lam-everywhere, Lam – Pante
The reduced quality oils fall into this category. The acidity is above 3%, and reaches up to 20%, with intermediate gradations (3-5) (5-8) (10-15) and (15-20). There are edible but after special processing will suffer can be made.
Accordingly, they have legislated designations of olive oils according to their quality and they appear on the market. The names are as follows;
- Virgin olive
a) of Extra (Virgin Oil , Oil extras ), acidity oleic acid 1 g / 100 oil b) Fine or fine ( Virgin olive , Oil extras ), acidity 1,5 g / 100 g oil c) Kouraante or normal ( Virgin olive , semi – Fine ), 3 g / 100 g oil
- Virgin olive degradedLam-parte
received with different treatments to become inedible
- virgin olive oil unsuitable for immediate consumption
- Refined olive Oil
- Olive oil, genuine, or Pure Coupe
Is olive oil has an acidity of 4% and above, up to 10%. is a mixture virgin olive oil suitable for human consumption.
Pomace Olive oil
It is obtained by physical methods, solvents, from the olive-pomace. Its acidity does not exceed 1.5% and its odor and flavor are satisfactory and the color is yellow. It is distinguished in;
- Crude olive oil and unsuitable for eating as it is.
- Refined olive and is a mixture of refined olive pomace oil and virgin olive oil, suitable for human consumption.